Jugsana Kalan village has a very high-water table that ranges between 10-15 feet, which makes ground water as the primary source of water for almost all uses – both households and for agricultural. Water quality, as informed by the residents, is clean and safe for drinking even without any treatment or filtration. 100% of households depend on one or the other modes of ground water extraction – either common tube wells or individual hand pumps. The study was undertaken to analyse the impact of toilets being constructed under ‘Swachh Bharat’ abhiyan in an extensively underground water dependent village on the health and livelihoods of the people.
Water and drainage management, Jugsana Kalan
Jugsana Kalan, Bulandshahr, Uttar Pradesh